Lower Sperm Count | Causes, Signs, Treatment & Diagnosis

Men's sperm count has been declining in numbers and deteriorating in swimming for quite some time - and, at least in the United States and Europe, new research says it's worsening.

Lower Sperm Count | Causes, Signs, Treatment & Diagnosis
Lower Sperm Count

A couple of new investigations revealed for the current week at the Scientific Congress of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) In Denver, American and European men recommend examining the sperm and the mobility of sperm — that is, the "swimming" ability of sperm cells —There has been a decline in the last decade, which follows a similar, broader trend observed by many scientists over the past few years.


A low sperm count implies that the liquid (semen) you convey during an orgasm contains less sperm than normal.

Low sperm count is also known by Oligospermia. A complete absence of sperm is known as Azoospermia.

If you have less than 15 million sperm per milliliter of semen, at that point, your sperm count is viewed as not exactly ordinary.

When you do not have enough sperm, there is less chance that they reach the egg and fertilize it, which can cause fertility problems.

Even though many men have lower sperm count, But they can still become fathers of the child.

What causes low sperms count?

Sperm production is a complex process and requires specific functioning of the testes and hypothalamus and pituitary glands - the organs of your brain that produce.

Once the sperm is made within the testes, the fragile tubes carry them till they are mixed with semen and exit from the penis. 

Issues with any of these systems can influence sperm productivity.

Also, abnormal morphology, motility or function problems may occur. 
However, often the cause of low sperm count is not identified.

Making mature healthy sperm that may travel depends on several things. Any issue or problem can prevent cells from developing into sperm. Any issue may prevent sperm from reaching the egg. Even the temperature of the scrotum can influence fertility. There are many reasons for this male infertility. Let us know about the several causes for lower sperm count in given below:

Medical Causes

Low sperm count can be caused by numerous medical issues and clinical medications. Some of these include:

1. Varicocele:

A varicocele is an inflammation of the veins that dries the testicles. It is the most widely recognized reversible reason for male infertility.

Even though the specific reason that causes varicocele infertility is obscure, it may be related to abnormal testicular temperature regulation. The quality of sperm decreases as a result of varicocele.

2. Ejaculation problems:

Retrograde discharge happens when the semen enters the bladder during sex as opposed to leaving the tip of the penis. 

A variety of health conditions can lead to diabetes, spinal cord injury, and bladder, prostate or urethral surgery, including ejaculation or ejaculation.

A few prescriptions can likewise bring about discharge issues, for example, circulatory strain meds known as alpha-blockers

Some ejaculation problems can be reversed, while others are permanent. In most cases of permanent ejaculation problems, spermatozoa can still be recovered directly from the testicles.

3. Obsolete testicles:

During fetal improvement, one of the two balls ( testicles) in some cases neglects to slide from the abdomen into the sac that regularly contains the testicle.

Men with this condition are more likely to have lower fertility.

4. The defects of the tubes that transport sperm:

Many different tubes carry sperm. They can be blocked for a variety of reasons, including unintentional injury, prior infection, trauma or abnormal development from surgery, such as cystic fibrosis or a similar inherited condition.

The blockage can occur at any stage, within the testicle, in the testicular irritation tubes, in the epididymis, in the vas deferens, near the ejaculatory ducts, or in the urethra.

5. Pre-surgery:

Some surgeries may prevent you from having sperm in your ejaculation, including vasectomy, inguinal hernia repair, scrotum or testicular surgery, prostate surgery, and major abdominal surgery for testicular and rectal cancer.

Much of the time, the medical procedures can be performed to turn around these blockages or to get sperm straightforwardly from the epididymis and testicles.

6. Infection:

Some infections can interfere with sperm production or sperm health or produce sperm that prevents the passage of sperm.

These include epididymitis (epididymitis) or testicles (orchitis) and some sexually transmitted infections, including gonorrhea or HIV.

Although some infections can cause permanent testicular damage, sperm can often be regained.

7. Tumors:

Cancer and non-malignant tumors can directly affect male reproductive organs, releasing hormones related to reproduction through the glands, such as the pituitary gland, or for unknown reasons.

Surgery, radiation or chemotherapy to treat the tumor can also affect male fertility.

8. Imbalance of hormones:

The hypothalamus, pituitary, and testicles produce hormones that are necessary to make sperm.

Changes in these hormones, as well as other systems such as the thyroid and adrenal glands, can also inhibit sperm production.

9. Antibodies that attack sperm:

Anti-sperm antibodies are cells of the system that erroneously determine sperm cell's harmful invaders and attempt to destroy them.

10. Chromosomal defect:

Underlying disorders such as Kleffelter syndrome - in which a male is born with two X chromosomes and one Y chromosome instead of one X - causes abnormal development of male reproductive organs.

Other hereditary disorders related to infertility include cystic fibrosis, Kalman syndrome, and Cartagenaar syndrome.

11. Some medicines:

Testosterone replacement therapy, long-term use of anabolic steroids, cancer drugs (chemotherapy), certain antifungals and antibiotics, certain ulcer medications, and other medications may inhibit sperm production and reduce male fertility.

12. Celiac disease:

Celiac disease, a digestive disorder caused by sensitivity to gluten, can lead to male infertility.

 Fertility may improve after the adoption of a gluten-free diet.

Environmental Causes

Sperm production or function can be influenced by overproduction for certain environmental elements, including:

Industrial chemicals:

Extended exposure to toluene, xylene, painting materials, pesticides, organic solvents, herbicides, benzene, and lead may add to diminished sperm count.

Heavy metal exposure:

Infertility can also occur due to exposure to lead or other heavy metals.

Radiation or x-ray:

Sperm production may be reduced by exposure to radiation. It might take quite a long while for sperm creation to come back to normal. With high dosages of radiation, sperm creation can be decreased forever. 

Heating the testicle:

Raised temperature disabled sperm creation and capacity. Even though reviews are constrained and uncertain, visit frequently of a sauna or hot tub may incidentally diminish sperm count.

Sitting for long periods, wearing tight clothes, or working on a laptop computer for long periods can also increase the temperature in your scrotum and reduce sperm production slightly.

Lifestyle and Other Causes

Heavy drug and alcohol use, as well as activities such as tobacco or vaping, can reduce sperm count.

Anabolic steroids, usually taken to increase muscle mass, almost always shrink the testicles and reduce sperm production.

Marijuana and opioids also reduce sperm production. Other possible reasons include:

  • Testosterone boosters, vitamins, and pre-workout supplements leading to a workout crowd may contain small amounts of anabolic steroids, which can impair sperm production.
  • Jobs that require prolonged seating, such as truck driving.
  • Emotional issues like stress and depression, especially if they are long term and severe.
  • Bodyweight, especially if you are obese or overweight, can also affect hormones.

lower sperm count signs

You may not experience any signs or symptoms of sperm quality until you try to start a family. That's right - infertility is the main symptom of oligospermia.

If your low sperm count is caused by an underlying condition - a hormone imbalance, chromosomal abnormality, testicular problem, or blockage - you may experience symptoms related to the condition, which is not the same as having a low sperm count.

These symptoms may include:
  • Low sex drive
  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Swelling or pain in or around the testicle
  • Less facial or body hair

Diagnosis Of Lower Sperm Count

Diagnosing the causes of male infertility can be difficult. Problems with sperm production or distribution often occur. Diagnosis starts with a total history and physical assessment. Your medicinal services provider additionally needs blood work and semen testing done. 

History And Physical Exam

Your medicinal consultant or doctors will take your wellbeing and careful history. Your provider will want to know about anything that may reduce your fertility.

These can include defects in your reproductive system, low hormone levels, illness or accidents.

Your Doctor or Medical expert will get some information about childhood ailment, current medical issues, or meds that may hurt sperm production.

Things like mumps, diabetes, and steroids can affect fertility. Your doctor or medical expert will likewise get some information about your utilization of liquor, tobacco, cannabis (marijuana), and other recreational medications.  He or she will ask if you are exposed to ionization of radiation, heavy metals, or pesticides.

Your health care provider will learn how your body functions during sex. She or he would like to know about you and your partner's efforts to become pregnant.

For instance, your doctor or medical expert may inquire as to whether you experience difficulty with erections. 

A physical examination will look for problems in your penis, epididymis, vas deferens and testicles.

Your health care provider will look for varicocele. They can be easily found with a physical examination.

Semen Analysis

Semen analysis is a routine laboratory test. It helps to show the cause of male infertility.

The test is most often performed twice. Masturbation in a sterile cup collects semen. Semen samples are studied.

It tends to be checked for things that help or hurt origination. 

Your health care provider will study your sperm volume, count, concentration, speed, and composition. The quality of your sperm tells a lot about your ability to conceive.

For instance, semen is typical on the off chance that it transforms into the fluid inside a short way from a pear gel. If not, there may be a problem in your male penis glands, within the semen vesicles.

The absence of sugar in the without sperm test may imply that there is no semen vesicle. Or it may mean that there is a blocked ejaculation duct.

If semen tests show a low sperm count or no sperm, it may not mean that you are permanently infertile.

It may just show that there is a problem with the development or distribution of sperm. More tests may be required.

Testicular Biopsy

This test includes expelling tests from the testicle with a needle. The results of the testicular biopsy may indicate whether sperm production is normal.

If it is, then your problem may be due to a blockage or another problem with sperm transport.

However, this test is usually used only in certain situations and is not usually used to diagnose the cause of infertility.

Anti-sperm antibody test

These tests, accustomed examine immune cells (antibodies) that attack sperms and have an effect on their ability to performaren't common.

Special sperm function test

Several tests can be used to test how well your sperm make due after discharge, how well they can enter an egg, and whether there are any egg-related issues. 

These tests are once in a while performed and frequently don't altogether change treatment suggestions. 

Transverse ultrasound

A little greased up wand is embedded into your rectum to check your prostate and check for the impediment of the semen conveying tubes (ejaculatory cylinders and semen vesicles).


Treatment relies upon what causes infertility. Numerous issues can be remedied with medications or medical procedures. This will permit origination through normal sex. This treatment for low sperm count incorporates:


For instance, a varicocele may regularly be carefully rectified or a blocked vas deferens can be fixed. 

Prior sterilization may be reversed. In situations where no sperm is available in discharge, sperm can frequently be acquired legitimately from the testicles or epididymis using sperm retrieval techniques.

Treatment of infection

Antibiotics can fix a disease of the regenerative tract, yet it doesn't generally reestablish fertility.

Remedies for sexual intercourse problems

May help improve fertility conditions with medication or counseling, for example, erectile dysfunction or premature discharge.

Hormone Treatment and Medicines

Your primary care physician may prescribe hormone substitution or prescriptions in situations where infertility is brought about by high or low degrees of specific hormones or issues with how the body utilizes hormones. 

Assisted reproductive technology

ART treatment includes general discharge, careful extraction or getting sperm from benefactor people, contingent upon your particular circumstance and desires. 

The sperm is then embedded into the female genital tract, or utilized for IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm infusion.

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