Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention

Abdominal aortic aneurysm


The artery ( aorta) is the primary vessel in our body. It is a long blood vessel that reaches from your chest to your stomach. It conveys blood from your heart to the rest of your body. The part of the aorta in your stomach is called the abdominal aorta. It supplies blood to your stomach, pelvis, and feet.

Sometimes an area of ​​the blood vessel wall will weaken. It can start swollen like a balloon and become abnormally large. This is called the aneurysm. If an aneurysm builds up in your abdominal aorta and becomes too large, your aorta may tear or rupture.
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

An aortic aneurysm can grow anyplace along the length of the aorta however the larger part is situated in the abdominal aorta. The vast majority of these abdominal aneurysms are situated underneath the level of the renal arteries which are the vessels that convey blood to the kidneys. The abdominal aortic aneurysm can extend into the iliac arteries.


The inward walls of the aneurysm are regularly fixed with blood clots that are stagnant blood. The aneurysm wall is layered like a piece of plywood.




What are the kinds of Abdominal aortic aneurysms?



AAAs are usually characterized by their size and the speed with which they are developing. These two factors can help in estimating the health effects of aneurysms.

Small (less than 5.5 cm) or on the other hand moderate developing AAAsgenerally have a much lower risk of crack than those with huge aneurysms or quickly developing ones. Specialists or doctors frequently think of it as more secure to screen them with standard stomach ultrasound than with their treatment.

Larger (more than 5.5 cm) or quickly developing AAASAre are bound to overflow with little or moderate developing aneurysms. A crack can prompt inside draining and different genuine intricacies. The bigger the aneurysm is, the more probable it should be treated with a medical procedure. It should also be treated if they are having symptoms or exclusion of blood.



Symptoms of Abdominal aortic aneurysms


As aneurysm develops, there are typically no symptoms. It can last slowly for years. Frequently, AAAs don't cause side effects except if they break, tear, or crack. If this happens, you may experience:


  • Sudden pain in your abdomen, waist, back, legs or buttocks.
  • nausea and vomiting.
  • Abnormal stiffness in your stomach muscles.
  • Problems with urination or bowel movements.
  • Dusky, sweaty skin.


If you are facing these symptoms, call your doctor or specialists. Internal bleeding from a broken Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms can cause you to go into shock. Shock can be deadly if not treated right away.



Causes of Abdominal aortic aneurysms


Doctors have no idea actually what causes AAA. Weak aortic walls increase the likelihood of developing an aneurysm. Some conditions can weaken the aortic walls.

Tobacco smoking:

 Over 90% of individuals who build up an AAA have smoked sooner or later in their lives. Smoking can legitimately damage your arteries, causing them to swell. It can also increase the risk of hypertension (high blood pressure).


Alcohol and High Blood Pressure:

Prolonged use of alcohol and swelling due to high blood pressure from abdominal edema that leads to hemorrhoids, esophageal varices, and other conditions are also considered to be the long-term cause of AAA.


Genetic effects: 

Genetic factors are more effective. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm is four to multiple times more common in male siblings of well-known patients at risk of 20 to 30%. The most notable is the high family prevalence rate among male individuals. 

There are several hypotheses regarding the exact genetic disorder that may lead to a greater incidence of AAA in male members of affected families.

 Some considered that alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency may have a significant effect, while other experimental work supported the hypothesis of X-linked mutations, which would explain the reduced incidence in asymptomatic women. 

Various estimates of hereditary reasons are planned. Connective tissue disorders, such as Marfan syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, are also strongly associated with AAA. 

Releasing polychondritis and pseudoxanthoma elasticum can cause an abdominal aortic aneurysm.

Atherosclerosis: 

AAA was long believed to be the cause of atherosclerosis, as AAA walls often carry an atherosclerotic burden. However, this hypothesis cannot be used to explain the initial defect and development of occlusion, which is observed in the process.


Other reasons:

For the development of AAA includes infection, trauma, arthritis, and cystic medial necrosis.




Abdominal aortic aneurysm Diagnosis



The physical examination might be the underlying method of abdominal aortic aneurysm. The health care expert might have the option to feel a pulsating mass in the center of the abdomen and make a clinical diagnosis. In patients with large circumferences, a physical examination is less helpful.

In very thin patients, the aorta can often be seen pulsed under the skin and maybe a common finding. Hearing with a stethoscope may likewise uncover a raised or unusual sound from the disturbance of blood within the aneurysm.


Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention

In most of the cases, X-rays of the stomach show calcium deposits in the aneurysm wall. In any case, plain X-rays of the abdomen can't decide the size and degree of aneurysms.

Ultrasonography ordinally gives an exact picture of the shape of the aneurysm. Ultrasound has about 98% precision in estimating aneurysm size and is safe and non-sensitive.

An abdominal CT scan is highly precise in deciding the size and degree of the aneurysm and its location in the aorta. To help repair the plan, if necessary, it is important to know whether the aneurysm is up or down where the kidneys close the arteries to go to the kidneys and whether the aneurysm spreads toward the chest or down into the iliac veins in the legs.

A CT scan requires the injection of the dye to evaluate blood vessels (including the aorta). People with kidney disease or color sensitivity may not be candidates for CT. MRI / MRA (magnetic resonance imaging and arteriography) may be an option.

An aorta, an X-ray study where the dye is injected directly into the aorta, was the test of choice, but CT and MRI have replaced it.





Abdominal aortic aneurysm Treatment



Depending on the size and precise location of the aneurysm, your doctor may perform surgery to repair or take away the broken tissue. This can be done with either open abdominal surgery or endovascular surgery. The medical procedure performed will rely upon your general wellbeing and sort of aneurysm.

Open abdominal surgery is used to remove damaged areas of your abdomen. It is a more aggressive form of surgery and has a longer recovery time. If your aneurysm is too huge or has already ruptured/ cracked, abdominal surgery might be necessary.

Endovascular surgery is a less obtrusive form of surgery than open abdominal surgery. This involves using a graft to stabilize the weak walls of your aorta.

For AAA less than5.5 cm wide, your primary care physician may choose to monitor it routinely as opposed to performing surgery. There is a risk in surgery, and small aneurysms usually do not rupture.



Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Surgery


Each patient is different and the decision to fix the abdominal aortic aneurysm depends on the size of the aneurysm, the patient's age, underlying medical conditions, and life expectancy.


Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention

There are two approaches to repair:

  1. The first is the traditional surgical approach. A large incision is made in the abdomen, the aortic aneurysm is identified and cut or protruded. The missing piece of the arterial blood vessel is replaced with an artificial graft.
  2. The second approach is placing endovascular grafts. A catheter or tube is threaded into the groin and into the femoral artery and the graft is positioned so that it extends and sits inside the aneurysm and protects it from expanding.

The way to deal with treatment should be different for the individual patient and depends a lot on the area, size, and condition of aneurysms.


Prevention of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm 


You can't always stop AAA from forming but there are steps you can take to reduce your risk. Contains:

  • Do not smoke If you are a smoker, try quitting.
  • Eat a healthy diet.
  • Be physically active.
  • Overseas conditions, for example, high blood pressure that can be controlled with medication

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